Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Meeting Goals: 1. Discuss the concepts covered in Lesson 7 2. Decide whether every group member understands concepts 3. Receive ideas from each group member about concepts I. Discussion Items A. What makes a group effective in achieving goals? B. What is considered a supportive or negative climate? C. How do you solve problems in a group or team? D. Different types of group leadership: Which is most effective? E. How can you enhance group or team meetings? II. Action Items A. Does everyone understand the concepts in Lesson 7? B. Answer any questions about any of the concepts III. Information Items A. Comments about concepts B. Importance of allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The group will be free to go about everything as they please. There might as well not be a leader present at all when it comes to a laissez-faire leader. It will be difficult for a group with this type of leader to stay on task, especially when the group comes across a problem or conflict. The leader will not step up and take action, and the group members might not be capable of getting through this obstacle. Right in the middle of the authoritarian and laissez-faire leaders is the democratic leader. The climate provided by a democratic leader will be more desirable compared to those of the other two styles of leadership. Allowing the group to reach a consensus rather than a leader making all of the decisions, will give the members of the group a sense of belonging. 3. Dear Coworker, In order to create an effective agenda you should gather all of you information before anything else. Once you know everything you would like to incorporate into your meeting it will be easier to categorizing the information into sections for your agenda. The first step to building an effective agenda is to start with your meeting goals. Placing the goals at the top of your agenda will allow the members to keep the primary issues in mind throughout the meeting. Also, placing your most important meeting goal first will ensure the group puts in the most effort in achieving that goal. Here s an example of the meeting goals section: Meeting Goals: 1. Discuss progress of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Unit 5: Communication and professional skills within child care and education D1:There are many aspects in relation to professional practice. Four areas of professional practice are: Attitudes to work Time keeping and attendance Awareness of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development Understanding childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour D2: It is important when working within a childcare setting that your timekeeping and attendance is up to scratch, punctuality is key because within this type of setting as a practitioner you have a multitude of responsibilities to carry out in order to help the child to thrive and develop. In addition to this it is also mandatory to have good punctuality because many people will be relying on you within that setting, For exampleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Understanding a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is keybecause they are unable to understand the reasons why they behave the way they do, but if a practitioner is able to understand their behaviour they can strive to overcome any issues which are contributing to the behaviour which is being shown. In addition to this by understanding the behaviour and trying to deciefer the reasons behind it as a practitioner you are helping them to avoid carrying the behaviour related issues into future life. D3-I have made sure throughout my time at work placement that I have been punctual and aware of my time keeping, this has been shown through my log book which has to be signed every day that I have been present (See appendix 1), In addition to this I have also had my final report passed, one of the criteria within this report is that I must show professional standards of time keeping, I passed this part of my report. (See appendix 2 highlighted pink). Whilst attending my work placement I have made sure that not only my timekeeping is up to a proficient standard but also that my attitude towards my work is that of a professional practitioner. I am able to distinguish an improvement in relation to my work attitude because on my final report one of the criteria states Ã¢â¬ËDemonstrates positive and consistent attitudes and behaviour which shows commitment to the welfare of the child and family this criteriaShow MoreRelatedUnit 25 Ccld1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUnit 25: Modern Beliefs and Religions for The Early Years Practitioner Scheme of Work ------------------------------------------------- Duration of Units: Unit 25:60 Guided Learning Hours/5 Credits ------------------------------------------------- Number of Sessions per week: 2 ------------------------------------------------- Duration of Sessions: 55 minutes per session ------------------------------------------------- General Unit Objectives: ------------------------------------------------- Read MoreCommunity Health Nursing1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespower the individual possesses to the fullest extent (Nightingale, 1969). 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The researcher was able to compare both parents with/without children affected with speech and language impairment as well as some of the school teachers and district officialsRead MoreClinical Nurse Leader Role in Psychiatric Department Essay1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore critical to provide high quality care in the hospital while being cost effective. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2005) has created the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role to introduce lateral integration of care for specified groups by cr eatively and intentionally using a variety of health care resources (AACN, 2005). The CNLÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to aid in various departments of the health care system including the psychiatric departmentRead MoreMy Chosen Career Is Nursing1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬ Though I would probably prefer to work in a pediatric unit because of my love for children. 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So we prepared suggestions for solving these problems and encourage female to utilize contraceptionRead MoreGraded Unit Action Plan838 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTitle: The importance of Playgroups for children and the impact the SSSC qualification requirements may have on them. Aim: My aim is to investigate and show the benefits that playgroups have for under fives in Scotland and I would like to analyse the impact that the SSSC qualifications requirements may have on practitioners and how it may affect the service they provide to children and stakeholders. I will aim to link my research to the following Units F56Y 35 Childhood Practice and Social Services:Read MoreGovernment Should Design Effective Child Nutritional And Health Program757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWomen/mothers education should be promoted as it has been proved that it is the key to reduce both chronic and acute malnutrition problems in children (stunting, underweight and wasting) and to find sustainable solutions to malnutrition. For the community: Measures aiming at promoting sanitation through encouraging people to own improved latrines among rural households should be devised to increase the level of sanitation and hence reduce diseases such as diarrhea and its consequences on children healthRead MoreRole Of Family Identified By Functionalist Theory And Marxist Theory1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 2) Does the role of family in society ever change? Regardless different culture context and history path, family forms the basic and highly important unit for every known society. The function of the family in society is often discussed and debated. As a result, there are various theories developed which include functionalist theory, feminist theory and Marxist theory (Mary Maynard, 2000) and each theory has explained a number of roles played by family, both positive and negative. This essay willRead MoreF Williams MKTG340 U2IP Essay1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnitÃ 2Ã IndividualÃ ProjectÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1 FolukeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã O.Ã WilliamsÃ 11/22/2014Ã AmericanÃ IntercontinentalÃ University InstructorÃ C.Ã XecominosÃ ProjectÃ Type:Ã MKTG340Ã UnitÃ 2Ã IndividualÃ Project UnitÃ 2Ã IndividualÃ ProjectÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2 Abstract InÃ todayÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ mediaÃ societyÃ journalistÃ andÃ marketingÃ publicÃ relationsÃ professionalsÃ areÃ veryÃ comparableÃ inÃ manyÃ ways.Ã BothÃ jobsÃ involveÃ writingÃ Ã andÃ collectingÃ informationÃ soÃ itÃ canÃ beÃ editedÃ forÃ massÃ mediaÃ play.Ã TheseÃ twoÃ alsoÃ hasÃ itsÃ differencesÃ oneÃ reliesÃ onÃ factsÃ whileÃ theÃ other
To me it makes no difference that Isis is female. I think she still follows Joseph Campbells concept of the hero and the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s journey. Even though IsisÃ¢â¬â¢s story differs from the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s journey she is still a hero according to the people of Egypt. On page 14 of our text World Mythology, Donna Rosenberg states Ã¢â¬Å"Isis was a human being as well as a goddess. Her persistent search for the body of Osiris and her trials while she reared Horus in the papyrus swamps endeared her to the Egyptian people. As in the HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey, Isis begins her journey, Ã¢â¬Å"The DepartureÃ¢â¬ , with the death of her husband Osiris. The Supernatural aide she receives comes from her father Thoth. Ã¢â¬Å"The InitiationÃ¢â¬ comes as she follows the Ã¢â¬Å"road of trialsÃ¢â¬ in her challenges to save her son and overcome the evil of Set. Ã¢â¬Å"The ReturnÃ¢â¬ is when Set finally losses in combat and on page 21 in our text Ã¢â¬Å"She was satisfied and happy. We will write a custom essay sample on Osiris, Isis and Horus or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Her husband had returned to life and love. Her son had avenged his fatherÃ¢â¬ ¦ The kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt was in good hands, and all was well. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Campbell asserts that there is a single pattern of heroic journey and that all cultures share this essential pattern in their various heroic myths. Ã¢â¬ (lecture). I think that the story of Isis follows the pattern of the hero as well as it being a part of her husband, OsirisÃ¢â¬â¢s hero journey. In Joseph CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s book The Hero with A Thousand Faces, he writes Ã¢â¬Å"The meeting with the goddess (who is incarnate in every woman) is the final test of the talent of the hero to win the boon of love (charity: amor fati), which is life itself enjoyed as the encasement of eternity. Ã¢â¬ I think that Isis is as much a hero on a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s journey as Osiris, or Luke Skywalker, Harry Potter or Jesus Christ. Because she is a woman, because she is a mother makes her journey no less important and actually makes it more powerful, I think.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Main Street by Sinclair Lewis Annonymous For as long as I can remember, I've loved to read: short stories, fiction, nonfiction sometimes, even philosophy if nothing else were available. This term I've been given more reading assignments than I can ever remember having to deal with. This term has been extra special because we studied no less than three types of literature: short stories, poetry, and drama. While I was in high school, a short story was a book with less than three hundred pages. This term I learned that even though a short story may be only a few pages long, there are chapters of interpretation, ambiguity, and symbolism to understand. In The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, I found a story teeming with so much symbolism that I had to read the story twice before I understood half of it. In Araby by James Joyce, I learned to look deeper than just the surface of the original wording to find new meanings to the story. Poetry, on the other hand, has been like a curse to me. I felt as if I were out of my depth when forced to read it. I could read the words, but comprehension was beyond me. Then, just last week I discovered poetry is indeed a foreign language. I've always picked up languages easily, I thought. I then knew that all I had to do was translate the dead language of poetry into terms I could understand, then, with a blinding flash, comprehension dawned. E.E. Cummings is really just a dirty old man. Carlos Williams is a political activist, and Dylan Thomas is incredibly grief stricken about the loss of some loved one. The emotions of the poems were almost too overwhelming to deal with. Once I was told that as we evolve, so to does our language. I thought my teacher had been in the sun too long when she told me that. But when I started reading works by William Shakespear, I found just how right she was. The writings of Shakespear also have the added benefit of being like poetry. For me drama is tedious, boring, and too hard to keep track of. Given the choice of reading Shakespear or getting a new series of hepatitis shots, I would go for a double series any day. Whenever I'm given a reading task, I treat it like a job, something to put up with until I'm done. I know differently now. I wonder how much I have missed thinking in such a way. From now on, I know that I will see it differently. Already with new eyes I see short stories and poems differently. Drama, however, will always be viewed as a painful task.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Washington College Admissions and Acceptance Rate Only around half of those who apply to Washington College are accepted. Learn more about the admissions requirements and what it takes to go to this college. About Washington College Founded in 1782 under the patronage of George Washington, Washington College has a long and rich history. The college was recently awarded a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa for its many strengths in the liberal arts and sciences. The Center for Environment Society, the C. V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience, and the Rose OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill Literary House are all valuable resources for supporting undergraduate education. Popular majors include Business Administration, Economics, English, Biology, and Psychology. Washington Colleges location in scenic Chestertown, Maryland, provides students with opportunities to explore the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Chester River. On the athletic front, the Washington College Shoremen and Shorewomen compete in the NCAA Division III Centennial Conference. The college fields seven mens and nine womens varsity sports. Popular sports include basketball, soccer, swimming, tennis, and rowing. The college also has a co-ed sailing team. Will you get in if you apply? Calculate your chances of getting in with this free tool from Cappex. Admissions Data (2016) Washington College Acceptance Rate: 49Ã percentWashington College has test-optional admissionsGPA, SAT and ACT Graph for Washington CollegeWhat these SAT numbers meanTop Maryland colleges SAT comparisonWhat these ACT numbers meanTop Maryland colleges ACT comparison Enrollment (2016) Total Enrollment: 1,479Ã (all undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 44 percent Male / 56 percent Female99Ã percent Full-time Costs (2016-17) Tuition and Fees: $43,842Books: $850 (why so much?)Room and Board: $10,824Other Expenses: $2,990Total Cost: $58,506 Washington College Financial Aid (2015-16) Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 98Ã percentPercentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 98 percentLoans: 62 percentAverage Amount of AidGrants: $25,533Loans: $7,671 Academic Programs Most Popular Majors:Ã Biology, Business Administration, Economics, English, Environmental Studies, History, Political Science, Psychology, Environmental StudiesWhat major is right for you?Ã Sign up to take the free My Careers and Majors Quiz at Cappex. Transfer, Graduation and Retention Rates First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 86Ã percent4-Year Graduation Rate: 70 percent6-Year Graduation Rate: 73Ã percent Intercollegiate Athletic Programs Mens Sports:Ã Lacrosse, Soccer, Rowing, Baseball, Basketball, Swimming, TennisWomens Sports:Ã Volleyball, Swimming, Soccer, Tennis, Softball, Rowing, Basketball, Lacrosse, Field Hockey Washington College and the Common Application Washington College uses theÃ Common Application. These articles can help guide you: Common Application essay tips and samplesShort answer tips and samplesSupplemental essay tips and samples If You Like Washington College, You May Also Like These Schools University of Delaware: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphTowson University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphGoucher College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphAmerican University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphDrexel University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphTemple University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphHood College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphBoston University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphJohns Hopkins University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphStevenson University: ProfileÃ Georgetown University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUrsinus College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph Washington College Mission Statement mission statement from washcoll.edu/about/our-mission.php Washington College challenges and inspires emerging citizen leaders to discover lives of purpose and passion. Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Mollusk Facts Mollusks may be the most difficult animal groupÃ for the average person to wrap their arms around: this family ofÃ invertebratesÃ includes creatures as widely divergent in appearance and behavior as snails,Ã clams, and cuttlefish. Fast Facts: Mollusks Scientific Name: Mollusca (Caudofoveates, Solanogastres, Chitons, Monoplacophorans, Scaphopods, Bivalves, Gastropods, Cephalopods)Common Name: Mollusks or molluscsBasic Animal Group: InvertebrateÃ Ã Size: Microscopic to 45 feet in lengthWeight: Up to 1,650 poundsLifespan: Hours to centuries- the oldest is known to have lived over 500 yearsDiet:Ã Mostly herbivore, except for cephalopods who are omnivoresHabitat: Terrestrial and aquatic habitats on every continent and ocean in the worldConservation Status: Several species are threatened or endangered; one is extinct Description Any group that embracesÃ squids, clams, and slugs present a challenge when it comes to formulating a general description. There are only three characteristics shared by all living mollusks: the presence of a mantle (the rear covering of the body) that secretes calcareous (e.g., calcium-containing) structures; the genitals and anus opening into the mantle cavity; and paired nerve cords. If youre willing to make some exceptions, most mollusks can also be characterized by their broad, muscular feet which correspond to the tentacles of cephalopods, and their shells (if you exclude cephalopods, some gastropods, and the most primitive mollusks). One type of mollusk, the aplacophorans, are cylindrical worms with neither shell nor foot. Getty Images Habitat Most mollusks are marine animals that live in habitats from shallow coastal areas to deep waters. Most stay within the sediments at the bottom of water bodies, although a few- such as cephalopods- are free swimming. Species There are eight different broad categories of mollusks on our planet. CaudofoveatesÃ are small, deep-sea mollusks that burrow into soft bottom sediments. These worm-like animals lack the shells and muscular feet characteristic of other mollusks, and their bodies are covered with scale-like, calcareous spicules.Solanogastres, like caudofoveata, are worm-like mollusks that lack shells. These small, ocean-dwelling animals are mostly blind, and either flattened or cylindrical.Chitons, also known as polyplacophorans, are flat, slug-like mollusks with calcareous plates covering the upper surfaces of their bodies; they live in intertidal waters along rocky coastlines worldwide.Monoplacophorans are deep-sea mollusks equipped with cap-like shells.Ã They were long believed to be extinct, but in 1952, zoologists discovered a handful of living species.Tusk shells, also known as scaphopods,Ã have long, cylindrical shells with tentacles extending from one end, which these mollusks use to rope inÃ prey from the surrounding water.Bivalves are characterized by their hinged shells and live in both marine and freshwater habitats. These mollusks have no heads, and their bodies consist entirelyÃ of a wedge-shaped foot. GastropodsÃ areÃ the most diverse family of mollusks,Ã including over 60,000 species ofÃ snails and slugs that live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats.Ã Cephalopods, the most advanced mollusks, includeÃ octopuses, squids, cuttlefish, and nautiluses. Most of the members of this group either lack shells, or have small internal shells. A tusk shell. Getty Images Gastropods or Bivalves Of the roughly 100,000 known mollusk species, about 70,000 are gastropods, and 20,000 are bivalves or 90 percent of the total. It is from these two families that most people derive their general perception of mollusks as small, slimy creatures equipped with calcareous shells. While the snails and slugs of the gastropod family are eaten the world over (including as escargot in a French restaurant), bivalves are more important as a human food source, including clams, mussels, oysters, and other undersea delicacies. The largest bivalve is the giant clam (Tridacna gigas), which reaches a length of four feet and weighs 500 pounds. The oldest mollusk is a bivalve, the ocean quahog (Arctica islandica), native to the northern Atlantic and known to live at least 500 years; it is also the oldest known animal. Bright yellow banana slug. Alice Cahill/Getty Images Octopuses, Squids, and Cuttlefish Gastropods and bivalves may be the most common mollusks, but cephalopods (the family that includes octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish) are by far the most advanced. These marine invertebrates have astonishingly complex nervous systems, which allows them to engage in elaborate camouflage and even display problem-solving behavior- for example, octopuses have been known to escape from their tanks in laboratories, squish along the cold floor, and climb up into another tank containing tasty bivalves. If human beings ever go extinct, it may well be the distant, intelligent descendants of octopuses that wind up ruling the earth- or at least the oceans! The largest mollusk in the world is a cephalopod, the colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), known to grow to between 39 and 45 feet and weigh up to 1,650 pounds.Ã 548901005677/Getty Images Diet With the exception of cephalopods, mollusks are by and large gentle vegetarians. Terrestrial gastropods like snails and slugs eat plants, fungi, and algae, while the vast majority of marine mollusks (including bivalves and other ocean-dwelling species) subsist on plant matter dissolved in the water, which they ingest by filter feeding. The most advanced cephalopod mollusks- octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish- feast on everything from fish to crabs to their fellow invertebrates; octopuses, in particular, have gruesome table manners, injecting their soft-bodied prey with venom or drilling holes in the shells of bivalves and sucking out their tasty contents. Behavior The nervous systems of invertebrates in general (and mollusks in particular) are very different from those of vertebrate animals like fish, birds, and mammals. Some mollusks, like tusk shells and bivalves, possess clusters of neurons (called ganglions) rather than true brains, while the brains of more advanced mollusks like cephalopods and gastropods are wrapped around their esophagi rather than isolated in hard skulls. Even more weirdly, most of the neurons of an octopus are located not in its brains, but in its arms, which can function autonomously even when separated from its body. The mouth of a limpet. Getty Images Reproduction and Offspring Mollusks generally reproduce sexually, although some (slugs and snails) are hermaphrodites, they still must mate to fertilize their eggs. Eggs are laid singly or in groups within jelly masses or leathery capsules. The eggs hatch into veliger larva- small, free-swimming larvae- and metamorphose into different stages, depending on the species.Ã Evolutionary History Because modern mollusks vary so widely in anatomy and behavior, sorting out their exact evolutionary relationships is a major challenge. In order to simplify matters, naturalists have proposed a hypothetical ancestral mollusk that displays most, if not all, of the characteristics of modern mollusks, including a shell, a muscular foot, and tentacles, among other things. We dont have any fossil evidence that this particular animal ever existed; the most any expert will venture is that mollusks descended hundreds of millions of years ago from tiny marine invertebrates known as lophotrochozoans (and even that is a matter of dispute). Extinct Fossil Families Examining the fossil evidence, paleontologists have established the existence of two now-extinct classes of mollusk. Rostroconchians lived in the worlds oceans from about 530 to 250 million years ago, and seem to have been ancestral to modern bivalves; helcionelloidans lived from about 530 to 410 million years ago, and shared many characteristics with modern gastropods. Somewhat surprisingly, cephalopods have existed on earth ever since the Cambrian period; paleontologists have identified over two dozen (much smaller and much less intelligent) genera that plied the worlds oceans over 500 million years ago. Mollusks and Humans Wayne Barrett Anne MacKay / Getty Images Over and above their historical importance as a food source- especially in the far east and the Mediterranean- mollusks have contributed in numerous ways to human civilization. The shells of cowries (a type of small gastropod) were used as money by Native Americans, and the pearls that grow in oysters, as the result of irritation by sand grains, have been treasured since time immemorial. Another type of gastropod, the murex, was cultured by theÃ ancient Greeks for itsÃ dye, known as imperial purple, and the cloaks of some rulers were woven from long threads secreted by the bivalve species Pinna nobilis. Conservation Status There are over 8,600 species listed in the ICUN, of which 161 are considered Critically Endangered, 140 are Endangered, 86 are Vulnerable, and 57 are Near Threatened. One, the Ohridohauffenia drimica was last seen in 1983 in springs feeding the River Drim in Macedonia, Greece and was listed as extinct in 1996. Additional surveys have failed to find it again. Threats The vast majority of mollusks live in the deep ocean and are relatively safe from theÃ destruction of their habitat and depredation by humans, but thats not the case for freshwater mollusks (i.e., those that live in lakes and rivers) and terrestrial (land-dwelling) species. Perhaps not surprisingly from the perspective of human gardeners, snails and slugs are most vulnerable to extinction today, as they are systematically eradicated by agriculture concerns and picked off by invasive species carelessly introduced into their habitats. Just imagine how easily the average house cat, used to picking off skittering mice, can devastate a near-motionless colony of snails. Lakes and rivers are also prone to the introduction of invasive species, particularly mollusks which travel attached to international seagoing ships. Sources Sturm, Charles F., Timothy A. Pearce, ngel ValdÃ ©s (eds.). The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation. Boca Raton: Universal Publishers for the American Malacological Society, 2006.Ã Fyodorov, Averkii, and Havrila Yakovlev. Mollusks: Morphology, Behavior, and Ecology. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2012. Mollusk Facts Mollusks (Mollusca) is a taxonomic phylum that contains a diverse array of organisms, including snails, sea slugs, octopuses, squid, and bivalves such as clams, mussels, and oysters. Between 50,000 and 200,000 species are estimated to belong to this phylum. Imagine the obvious differences between an octopus and a clam, and youll get an idea of the diversity among mollusks. Fast Facts: Mollusks Scientific Name: Mollusca: Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Monoplacophora, Scaphopoda, Aplacophora, PolyplacophoraCommon Names: Snails, sea slugs, octopuses, squid, and bivalvesBasic Animal Group: InvertebrateSize: Varies from 0.04 inch (solenogasters and gastropods) to 4 feet (giant clam)Ã Lifespan: 3 years to over 500Diet:Ã Carnivore or herbivoreHabitat: Oceans and coastal waterways worldwidePopulation: UnknownConservation Status: Most are classified as Least Concern; mollusks make up nearly one-fourth of all marine animals on Earth.Ã Description Mollusks have a shell and soft body and usually have a distinguishable head and foot region. Some may have a hard covering, or exoskeleton. Mollusks also have a heart that pumps blood through their blood vessels, digestive system, and a nervous system. In addition to a shell, most mollusks have a muscular foot for creeping or burrowing, and some have a head with sense organs. Their soft body includes lungs or gills for breathing and digestive and reproductive parts. These are surrounded by a skin-like organ called the mantle. Mollusks also have bilateral symmetry- one side is a mirror image of the other- and can have one or two shells. Their organs are in a fluid-filled cavity; indeed, the very word mollusk in Latin means soft. The upper body, or the mantle, is a thin, muscular sheet that covers the internal organs. Most mollusks, particularly those with shells, also have gills in the central part of their body cavity. Despite looking fragile, mollusk shells are quite hard. Scientists are even studying nacre, a material found in mollusk shells, to develop materials that are stronger and lighter than steel. Puneet Vikram Singh, Nature and Concept photographer/Getty Images Habitat and Distribution Mollusks- snails, sea slugs, octopuses, squid, and bivalves- are found in habitats ranging from freshwater lakes and rivers to shallow coastal waters to the deepest parts of the oceans, worldwide. Most live in the bottom sediments, though cephalopods are primarily free-swimming species; some snails and clams are terrestrial. Species Mollusks belong to the kingdom Animalia and there are tens of thousands of invertebrates that fit into the Mollusca phylum. New ones are still being discovered, and researchers continue to modify the number and grouping classifications. One common schema used by researchers includes seven classes: Gastropoda (snails and slugs)Ã Bivalvia (clams, scallops, oysters, mussels)Ã Cephalopoda (squid, octopi, nautilus)Monoplacophora (limpets)Ã Scaphopoda (tusk shells)Ã Aplacophora (shell-less, worm-like animals)Ã Polyplacophora (chitons)Ã Ã Diet and Behavior Many mollusks feed using a radula, essentially a series of teeth on a cartilage base. The radula can be used for complex tasks, from grazing on marine algae or drilling a hole in another animals shell. The radula scrapes tiny plants and animals off rocks or tears food into chunks. The adoption of different feeding habits appears to have had a major influence on molluscan evolution, according to the University of California Museum of Paleontology: The change from grazing to other forms of food acquisition is one of the major features in the radiation of the group. Based on our current understanding of relationships, the earliest mollusks grazed on encrusting animals and detritus. Since mollusks are such a wide-ranging phylum, its helpful to look at how one of the organisms that belong to this group feeds and how it captures its prey. Consider the deadly blue-ringed octopus. This mollusk hunts small crabs and shrimp during the day, but it will eat bivalves and small fish if it can catch them. The octopus pounces upon its prey, using its tentacles to pull its catch toward its mouth. Then, its beak pierces the crustaceans exoskeleton and delivers the paralyzing venom. The venom is produced by bacteria in octopus saliva, a combination of tetrodotoxin, histamine, taurine, octopamine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. Once the prey is immobilized, this mollusk uses its beak to tear off chunks of the animal to eat. The saliva also contains enzymes that partially digest flesh, so that the octopus can suck it out of the shell. The blue-ringed octopus is immune to its own venom. Reproduction and Offspring Some mollusks have separate genders, with males and females represented in the species. Others are hermaphroditic, which means they have both male and female reproductive organs. The mollusk life cycle varies greatly among different classes of mollusks and among species within classifications. Squids reproduce sexually: The females lay fertilized eggs in the water which hatch into larvae and then develop on their own. Octopuses do the same, except the females carry the eggs with her until they hatch. Clams, mussels, and oysters produce larvae that drop through the sea water and attach to a host to grow to maturity on. The hosts are usually fish, but oysters prefer the shell of an adult oyster. Land snails are hermaphrodites that mate and both partners produce fertilized eggs. The eggs are deposited in the soil; they hatch with a shell but most consume calcium to make it harden.Ã Mollusks and Humans The primary use that humans have for mollusks and the rest of ocean-living animals is their ability to filter large quantities of water, up to 10 gallons each. Mollusks are also important to humans as a food source- especially in the Far East and the Mediterranean- and have contributed in numerous ways to human civilization. The shells of cowries (a type of small mollusk that belongs to the gastropod family) were used as money by Native Americans, and the pearls that grow in oysters, as the result of irritation by sand grains, have been treasured for centuries. Another type of mollusk, the murex, was cultured by theÃ ancient Greeks for itsÃ dye, known as imperial purple, and the cloaks of some rulers were woven from long threads secreted by the bivalve species (twin-shelled mollusks)Ã called Pinna nobilis. Culturing Tahitian pearls. CampPhoto/Getty Images Conservation Status Over 8,600 molluscs are listed in the IUCN Red List, most classified as Least Concern or Data Deficient, although many are threatened or endangered. The phylum represents nearly one-fourth of all the species on the planet. Threats Increasing levels of carbon dioxide are raising the pH level of the worlds oceans, which in turn, increases the acidity of these bodies of water. This greatly weakens mollusks otherwise strong shells and even makes it difficult for them to produce shells in the first place, threatening their survival. If mollusks begin to die out in mass, then fish and other animals that feed off of them may suffer. Northeastern University marine biologist Brian Helmuth gives the example of the common mussel, a member of the family of bivalve mollusks. In addition to the problem of increased acidity in the oceans, which, as noted, makes it harder for these mollusks to produce shells, the increasing temperatures of the oceans and even the sand and air on the surrounding beaches can mean a death sentence for mussels. Ã¢â¬Å"You are sitting there in the blazing sun, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to be able to move,Ã¢â¬ Helmuth says. Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape the heat, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape the sun, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t go into a crevice like ... a crab.Ã¢â¬ Mussels can literally start to cook on the rocks if they get too hot. Helmuth adds that global warming is shrinking the habitat in which mussels and other mollusks can live. And since mollusks are such an integral part of the food chain, that could eventually affect many other animals that depend on them for sustenance. Sources Beeler, Carolyn. To Understand Climate Change, Look at it From a Mussels Perspective. PRIs The World, April 25, 2017.Martinez, Andrew J. Marine Life of the North Atlantic. Aqua Quest Publications, Inc.: New York, 2003.The Mollusca. University of California Museum of Paleontology.Ã¢â¬Å"Molluscs.Ã¢â¬ Ã Biology Education.Mollusks. Factmonster.Phylum: Mollusks. Mollusk Science.Salvini-Plawen, Luitfried. Ã¢â¬Å"Mollusk.Ã¢â¬ Ã EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, Inc., 13 Apr. 2018,
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Education. What issues can arise during 'transition' - Essay Example The difficulties are based on mental growth development and educational curriculum demands which calls for young learners to make the transition, or else be left behind in the educational system. For most young learners, the transition difficulties are only seen during the first few days or weeks of the school year, however, for others, the difficulties may persist throughout the school year. There are different issues encountered during the period of transition for students and these issues shall be discussed in this paper. The transition focused on would mostly be on the transition from primary to secondary school in the UK. Possible suggestions on how the transition may be eased would also be discussed in this text in order to provide some clarity and recommendations based on the issues noted for transitioning learners. Body Transition, as was mentioned above refers to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s move and adjustment period from primary to secondary schools. The transition process here also includes not just the transition of students from primary to secondary school, but any other transitions these children may make which eventually causes a change in venue (change schools), including transfers to different schools due to family moving from one home to another. The transfers may also be attributed to a family death or parental divorce/separation. Various studies have been carried out on the issues encountered during the transition process (Graham and Hill, 2002; Galton, Gray and Ruddock, 2000). Reviewing studies on the subject matter has revealed various themes or issues during such transition period. Alston, Sammons, and Mortimore (1985) carried out a longitudinal study for children from 50 primary schools in the London area, assessing the transition experiences of the children. About 1600 students were evaluated for their study, evaluating their attitudes, behaviour, attendance before and during their transition period to secondary school. The study revealed that m ost of the students transitioned well into secondary school and had favourable attitudes towards secondary school (Alston, et.al., 1985). Most of them were also pleased with their work in their new school. Admittedly, most of the students initially had reservations about secondary school, however, most of them gradually settled well into their classes and were actually happier than was expected for transitioning students. This study however has contrasting results with the Fouracre (1993) study which indicates the presence of a discontinuity between primary and secondary school as teachers often underestimate the abilities of their pupils. There also seems to be a mismatch between the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations of the work in secondary school and their actual experiences in the classroom (Fouracre, 1993). One of the issues encountered during transition are elements relating to social class. Studies reveal that those belonging to the lower income communities are likely to have tro uble transitioning into the secondary school system (Keating and Hetzman, 1999). Socioeconomic status as well as parental social class has a huge role during the transition period as students with lower social status likely to have trouble transitioning and eventually leave the educational system early (Ferguson, Tilleczek, Boydell, Rummens, Cote, & Roth-Edney, 2005). As discussed by Keating and Hetzman (1999), there is less extracurricular participation among these students, as well as limited school personnel support for these students. Some of them also increasingly experience daily hassles from school personnel (Keating and Hetzman, 1999). It was also established by McGee, Ward, Gibbons, and Harlowe (2003) that children having higher socioeconomic status